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Lybie: Historie těžby ropy a jiných surovin (History of petroleum exploration in Lybia etc.)

Ekologické vzdělání a výchova
Lybie: Historie těžby ropy a jiných surovin (History of petroleum exploration in Lybia etc.)
Libya depends primarily on revenue generated from its oil industry, which provides all foreign export earnings as well as contributing a third to Libya´s GDP. To date, there are no other commercial mining ventures. Due to the country´s geology being exposed in some of the most desolate and barren regions of the country, access is not easy, as these areas remain largely uncharted. The basement, which constitutes part of the East Saharan craton, is uniquely located between the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the east and the Hoggar Massif to the west. Upper Archaean exposures suggest potential for the location of diamondiferous kimberlites, however, there appears to have been a Pan African tectonothermal event that has overprinted much of the area, downgrading diamond preservation potential along the East Saharan craton. However, the presence of several high grade metamorphic belts suggests potential for gold, iron ore and base metals in Libya. Several tertiary ring complexes are well exposed to the south of the country. Solid mineral production in Libya is largely for the cement industry, for which an estimated 150,000 t/y of gypsum is used in addition to the basic feedstock of limestone and clay. Some 30,000 t/y of salt is produced by solar evaporation in coastal pans near Benghazi and Tripoli and approximately 13,000 t/y of sulphur is recovered from petroleum and natural gas refining. The Waddi Shatti iron ore deposit located some 900km from the coast appears to have potential as a possible feed to the Misurata steel complex which currently imports its ore. Here a resource of 795Mt of iron ore grading at an average 52% iron has been identified. Although the government is keen to develop the deposit, foreign investment is required to develop the infrastructure to the mine through the development of a 900km long railway line

Libya, a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), holds the largest proven oil reserves in Africa. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Libya had proved oil reserves of 41.464 billion barrels at the end of 2007 or 3.34 % of the world's reserves.

Libya is Africa´s major oil producer and one of Europe´s biggest North African oil suppliers. Supplies from North Africa to Europe destinations have the advantage of being both timely and cost effective. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Libya produced an average of 1847.7 thousand barrels of crude oil per day in 2007, 2.2% of the world total and a change of 0.5 % compared to 2006. Libya´s economy is based on oil and exports contribute between 75% and 90% of State revenues.

Foreign involvement in Libya was severely reduced as a result of the sanctions and embargoes emplaced upon it, especially between the years of 1992 and 1999. Access to oil industry equipment and technology was restricted and Libya is reliant on foreign investment to keep the industry active.

Libya has very low production costs and the oilfields are close to the refineries and markets of Europe. In addition, despite almost half a century of exploration, Libya remains largely unexplored with vast oil and gas potential. The under-exploration of Libya reflects the impact of sanctions formerly imposed on the country.

According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Libya had 2007 proved natural gas reserves of 1.49 trillion cubic metres, 0.84% of the world total, while producing 15.2 billion cubic metres, 0.51% of the world total, in the same period.

NOC controls the whole of the downstream sector together with its numerous subsidiaries and overseas arms, Umm Jawwaby Oil Services and OilInvest with its two subsidiaries of Gatoil and Tamoil

The Umm Jawwaby Oil Services acts as the Libyan National Oil Company´s procurement arm based in London. Libya is a direct producer and distributor in Italy, Germany, Switzerland and Egypt. In Italy, Tamoil Italia, which is based in Milan and has approximately 2,100 service stations, controls about 5% of the country´s retail market for oil products and lubricants.

Before 1911 the natural resources of Libyan were under the control of the Turkish Empire. After 1911 until 1942 Italian colonist drove the geological exploration of Libya, and then from 1942 to 1951 a British administration took over this activity. Before the discovery of oil, Libya had very low economic promise, having been a major battle field during both World War I and II.

Geological studies really started in 1926 when Ardito Desio (see photographs in the oval heading this section) was assigned by the Italian Geographic Society to explore the Giarabub (Al-Jaghbub), an oasis within the Libyan Sahara. Ardito Desio organized and led this geographical and geological expedition, resulting in the publication of four volumes on the local geology. The oval header on the menus bar above figures Ardito Desio riding a camel during this expedition to the Sahara and he signed dedicated this picture to sponsoring Italian Geographic Society in the Libyan Desert. From 1930 to 1933 Ardito Desio led geological and geographical expeditions into the hinterland of Libya. One of the most notable was in the summer of 1931 and sponsored by the Italian National Academy. It crossed the Sahara desert using a large caravan of camels from the Mediterranean to the frontier of Sudan and back across the Libyan Sahara through the Fezzan. The report of this expedition was published in 4 volumes.

In 1930´s, doubt was generated by geologists, who included Desio (1935), that Libya might have little in the way of commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. and coincidentally no oil discoveries were made under the Italian administration.

From 1954 to 1962 in search of water and minerals large areas of the country were photographed by the petroleum industry suplementing the information gleaned from the large portions that had been mapped by the Italians, British, American military personnel, and by the United States Geological Survey.

More on:http://sepmstrata.org/Libya-Hassan/Petroleum-History-Libya.html

ZDROJ:.sepmstrata.org, http://www.mbendi.com

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