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Albánské hot spots

14.06.2003  |  125× přečteno      vytisknout článek

Albánské hot spots During the past few years, Albania has suffered from the effects of regional destabilization and civil unrest. During the Spring of 1999, the country was issued a new and urgent challenge as hundreds of thousands of refugees escaped the conflict in Kosovo by entering Albania. Albania responded to that challenge with remarkable strength, and accepted a great burden on its already weak environmental infrastructure. Nevertheless, the impacts of the Kosovo conflict appear to have been relatively modest when compared with other, more severe environmental challenges in the country. After decades of environmental neglect, economic factors have slowed Albania\'s industrial sector. As a result, less smoke, less effluent, and less solid waste is flowing from the nation\'s factories and mines. In the wake of years of industrial activity, however, remain a number of severely contaminated sites that are threatening human health and the environment. UNEP has identified five such \'hot spot\' sites. Some of these plants are closed, others remain operational and important to Albania\'s economy. All require urgent attention. While several of the other sites investigated by the mission may not be emergency situations, they do pose very serious environmental management problems. These sites, too, require swift attention in order to prevent further risks to human health and the environment. In general, UNEP recommends a two-track approach to addressing industrial contamination in Albania. First. risk reduction strategies should be quickly developed and implemented to remediate the problems identified in the \'hot spot\' sites. Similar, if less urgent, strategies will be needed for the other industrial sites discussed. Second, the pressing need to clean up Albania\'s polluted industrial facilities calls attention to a host of the country\'s more structural environmental management issues. Hazardous waste management. Solid waste disposal. Wastewater treatment. Soil and groundwater protection. Monitoring. Enforcement. Today in Albania, all of these issues, and others. require strong leadership and sustained investments that will support the efforts of the country\'s dedicated environmental experts. Albania must lead the way by demonstrating a strong commitment to protecting and improving its environment. In this connection, Albania can benefit by working closely with neighboring states. In turn, the international community should be prepared to support Albania\'s efforts in the interest of protecting human health and promoting a strong and prosperous regional environment. Below are recommendations for specific action based on the findings detailed above. Hot Spots 1. Chemical plant - Durrës a) Commence a coordinated emergency response effort under the direction of the NEA that: Strictly prohibits access to the plant, the dumpsite, and the chemical storage facilities. o Immediately resettles all citizens living in or near the plant and the dumpsite into adequate housing and provides health monitoring. Immediately and safely stores the chemicals at a secure site until adequate transport and treatment can be arranged. Strict precautions should be taken to protect workers involved in the chemical transfer process. Conducts a comprehensive study of soil and water contamination in the plant, dumpsite and storage areas and recommends short and long-term remediation measures for each area. Establishes monitoring wells and a monitoring program encompassing the three sites, as well as the upper groundwater aquifer draining to the sea. Reconstructs or, at minimum, repaves local roadways built with contaminated materials from the plant. 2. Chloralkali and PVC Factory - Vlorë a) Commence a coordinated emergency response effort under direction of the NEA that: Strictly prohibits access to the plant. Immediately resettles all citizens living in or near the plant into adequate housing and provides health monitoring. o In the very short term, bonds the mercury residues at the chlorine-alkali electrolysis plant. Conducts a comprehensive study of soil and groundwater contamination in the plant, and recommends short and long-term remediation measures for each area. Establishes monitoring wells and a monitoring program encompassing the upper groundwater aquifer draining to the Bay. 3. Marize Oil Field - Patos a) In the short term: o close wells in a section of the oil field near the village; o begin soil remediation immediately; and o maintain production levels, if possible, by increasing production from oil wells near the pre-treatment facilities. b) Accelerate plans to reconstruct the field, including re-injection back into the wells of wastewater and certain fractions from the pretreatment of the crude oil. c) Ensure that pretreatment facilities have a proper oil separator for recirculation of the crude oil. d) To protect air quality, upgrade and tighten the wells and pipelines, and cover storage tanks. e) Establish monitoring wells and monitor waters and private water wells downstream of the oil field. f) Consider management incentives or other methods of encouraging the minimization of crude oil losses during production. 4. Oil Refinery - Ballsh a) Immediately identify and repair leaks of crude oil and oil components in the oil refinery compound and from the production system. b) Rebuild the wastewater treatment plant to match the actual volume and composition of wastewater generated. c) Establish monitoring wells along the riverbank downstream from the refinery; investigate river waters and private well water quality. d) Monitor air quality around the site, and install emission control technologies. e) Consider management incentives or other methods of encouraging the minimization of oil losses during production. 5. Waste Disposal Site - Sharra a) Strictly prohibit citizen and animal access to the dumpsite. b) Develop a management system for the landfill, including strategies for halt- ing the burning of waste, identifying types of waste, and limiting the contamination of soil and groundwater. Establish monitoring wells and screen them at different levels. Establish a monitoring program that includes surface water and groundwater downriver from the dump. Monitoring should include microbiological and organic compound parameters. d) Local authorities should relocate waste at the Pezd-Helmds landfill from the outer five meters of the landfill (nearest the river) to a site on the inner part Of the landfill. To reduce contaminant leaching and prevent contact with river waters, replace the removed waste with clay material. e) Local authorities should investigate water quality downriver of the Pezë Helmës dumpsite, in private wells supplied by the river, and waters treated at the Pezë e Vogël plant. Sample for microbiological and organic compounds. Other Industrial Sites 6. Nitrate Fertilizer Plant - Fier a) Accelerate plans to remove the arsenate and arsenite solution from the plant and remediate the surrounding area. b) In the very short-term: Determine the scope of arsenic contamination of the soil and remove the contaminated soil in order to prevent groundwater contamination. Reline the concrete basin to prevent further leakage to the surrounding environment. Investigate soil and surface water near the storage site. Local experts have developed a plan to reduce the volume of solution needing remediation. Fully explore the feasibility of this plan. c) Examine the influence of untreated wastewater from the plant on receiving waters. 7. Metallurgical Complex - Elbasan a) Investigate the quality of surface water and drinking water in private wells located downstream from the hydro-tailing dam as well as the plant\'s wastewater effluent. b) Monitor soil and groundwater near the hydro-tailing dam and surface water in the river system. c) Use fuels with lower sulfur content, and monitor air quality in the area, especially for particles. Install air pollution control technologies to reduce emissions and require the installation of such technologies prior to future reactivation of the complex\'s air polluting processes. 8. Copper Factory - Rubik a) As a short-term means of preventing groundwater contamination, cover the residue with lime or limestone. b) To clarify the potential risks to human health in the area, investigate private well water quality downstream of the factory. c) Establish monitoring wells between the factory and the river, and monitor river waters and private well water. d) To eliminate contamination potential altogether, move the residue back into the mine. 9. Phosphate Fertilizer Factory - Lac a) As a short-term means of preventing groundwater contamination, consider covering the residue with lime or limestone. b) To clarify the potential risks to human health in the area, investigate private well water quality downstream of the factory. c) Establish monitoring wells between the factory and the river, and monitor river waters. d) To eliminate contamination potential altogether, move the residue to a secure storage site, e.g., a mine. Zdroj:UNEP


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