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Řecké horské a lesní ekosystémy

20.04.2005  |  142× přečteno      vytisknout článek

Řecko - to nejsou jenom pláže a moře....


Greece is a mountainous land with rugged terrain and diverse geomorpho- logical formations, which fact, in conjunction with its geographical location and climatic environment, creates favorable conditions for the growth and proliferation of forests. 

In Greek Forests exist important and very beautiful woods of conifers (pine, fir) and deciduous trees (oak, beech, maple and others) covering large areas (34 million hectares), 25% of the land mass of Greece) on most of the country's mountain masses, from Taygetos, Vitina, Ossa, Olympos, Pindos, to Gramos, Vermion and Rodopi. These forests constitute a precious natural heritage, not just for Greece but for the whole of Europe. Largely unspoilt, they provide a habitat for the evolution and survival of a large number of species of wild fauna and flora. It is estimated that, in terms of biological variety, the natural flora of Greece is second only to that of the Iberian peninsula in Europe, while the country's wildlife also enjoys an enviable position, both the mammals and, primarily, the birds, whether indigenous to the Greek Forests or migrating to them.

Mount Taygetos, Messinia, Peloponnese

Mitikas, Olympos

A net-work of protected forests has been founded, in which the national forest parks of Parnitha, Sounion, Parnassos, Ainos, Iti, Prespes, Samaria, Vikos-Aoos, Olympos occupy a prominent place. In addition to their protective role, these constitute poles of attraction for visitors with varied interests.

The picturesque forests of Greece (the palm forest at Vai in Crete, the woods on the island of Skiathos, the straits of the river Nestos, etc.), the virgin forests (Rodopi), as well as the scheduled monuments of nature (the Haidou Forest of Xanthi, the wood of dendroid broad-leafed evergreens on the island of Sapientza, etc.) play their part in the conservation of the natural environment. The network of protected regions is completed by those earmarked to play a specialized role in the conservation and development of the natural environment of Greece. These include the Dadia Forest on the banks of the Evros, where a large number of rare and nowadays endangered birds of prey (imperial eagle, osprey, black vulture, etc.) finds refuge and protection from the threat of extinction. 


Parnitha National Park (Attica): This Park, covering an area of 3,800 hectares, was established in 1961 and contains forests of fir and pine as well as bushes that are characteristic of the vegetation of the Mediterranean (holm-oak, arbutus, pomegranate, Judas tree). There are cool and fertile areas with their own micro-climate which are covered by planes-trees, willows, poplars and broad-leaved deciduous tress. The Park has a large number of different species of fauna but populations are small. They include deer, roe-deer, badger, polecat, weasel and squirrel, and a pair of golden eagles recently appeared in the area. Among the insect life are bark-eating insects which are threatening the pine forest.

Parnassos National Park (Central Greece); Established in 1938, Pamassos National Park covers an area of 3,600 hectares. The predominant species of vegetation is the fir and there is a wide variety of rare plants such as Peonia Pamassica, Thyinus Pamassicus, Astragalus Pamassii, etc. 
The main species that grows in the sun-alpine meadows is the fescue grass along with many kinds of wild plum-tree.

The fauna of the area comprises Greece's commonest wild animals, such as the fox, hare, sguirrel and jackal. There are also some rare species of bird, like the hawk and vulture, as well as a tremendous number of passerines and members of the crow familly. There is a wide variety of snakes and insects.

Iti National Park (Central Greece): The Iti National Park lies to the south of the valley of the River Sperchios and was established in 1966. Part of the area is covered by forests of fir and black pine. Examples of the Alpine lily Lilium Cholcedonium can be found in the meadows between the forests, while holm-oak, arbutus, cedar and oleander grow on the lower slopes. The fauna of mount Iti is particularly rich in deer and roedeer, wild goat and wild boar. There is also a tremendous variety of birds, including eagles, vultures, hawks, owls, partridges and hoopoes. 
Other species of interest are frogs and tortoises, as well as reptiles and numerous kinds of insect.

Vikos Ravine, Epirus

Vikos-Aoos National Park (Epirus): The Pindus area, which encompasses a total of 12,600 hectares and includes Mount Tymfus, the Vikos Gorge and the Aoos Ravine, was declared a 
National Park in 1973. Its principal forests consist of broad-leaved deciduous trees (hornbeam, maple, willow and oak), but it also contains forests of plane, elm, lime and hazel, as well as fir, 
cedar and black and white - barked pine. The region's fauna is very rich in large mammals like the bear, the wolf, roe-deer, wild goat and wild boar in addition to smaller animals such as the wild cat, hare, polecat and squirrel. Several species offish including trout live in the rivers, along with otters and numerous water incects of interest.

Olympos National Park (Thessaly): This was the first National Park to be set up in Greece (1937) and is one of the longest- established in the world. It contains approximately 1,700 species of plant, including some rare and even unique examples of wild flowers. The lower slopes are covered by species of the Mediterranean maquis such as holm-oak, arbutus, cedar and pomegranate mingled with other deciduous trees and conifers. Higher up there are forests of oak, beech, black and Balkan pine. Amongst the fauna in the Park are large mammals such as the wolf, jackal, fox, wild boar, roe-deer and wild goat, and smaller mammals such as the badger, polecat, weasel, hare and squirrel. The area's bird-life includes eagles, vultures and other birds of prey, woodpeckers and snow-thrushes.

Dadia Forest (Evros-Thrace): The protected area of the Forest of Dadia is a nature reserve, unique in Europe, for birds of prey, 36 of the 38 remaining species in Europe can be found here. 
The visitor sets out with a briefing from the Centre of Ecotourism and continues with a guided trip to the reserve with its extensive pine and oak woods, where he can watch the raptors from the special lookout. He can also go to the establishments of the Katrantzides and taste the traditional products of the Women's Cooperative. 

The National Park of Samaria Gorge, in Western Crete, about 50 kilometres from the city of Chania. One of the longest gorges in Europe and certainly the most narrow one! It's 18 km long and at a certain point it gets less than 2.5 metres wide!

The National Park of Mount Ainos in the island of Kefalonia, in the Ionian sea. It is the only place in Greece where horses can be seen living free in the wilderness.

The Valley of the Butterflies of Rhodes Island: On the western side of the island approximately five km south-east of the village of Theologos (Tholos). The valley is split by the Pelican River and lies directly below Kalopetra Monastery. The systematic classification of the Rhodes island butterfly, Class: Lepidoptera • Group: Heterocera • Subdivision: Noctuoidea • Division: Arctiidae • Subdivision: Callimorphonae • Genus: Panaxia • Species: Quadripunctaria Poda • In reality it belongs to the moth family.

Rhodes island can be proud of the remarkable phenomenon of Panaxias' consentration in such large numbers, but cannot claim its unique existence. Panaxia exists in other parts of Greece as well as in other countries. The phenomenon in Rhodes though is unique in its mass. The Valley of the Butterflies which is the main habitat, contains millions of butterflies during the summer, especially during August when the migration of the insect has been completed. 
Information: Municipality of Theologos, Tel. 02410-41228.

Forest-Mountain Ecosystems of Evia IsL; 

a) Mt. Diriys in Central Evia. It is the highest mountain (alt. 1,743 m.) of Evia, very close to the sea and 35 kilometres from Chalkis, the island's capital. Its principal forests consist of fir-trees, while its slopes at the village of Steni are covered by an "aesthetic" forest of chestnuts. At the foot of the mountain there is the Agali Gorge between the villages Loutsa and Ayios Athanasios.

b) Chestnut Forest of Metochi and Plateau of Vromonera in Evia, between the villages Metochi and Androniano (Kymi area).

c) Forest of Platania in North Evia, near the village of Prokopi.

d) Petrified Forest ofKerasea (Kerasa) in North Evia.

e) Dimosari Gorge in South Evia, which ranges from south (Karystos' area) to north (Beach of Kallianos Bay).

Mount Dirfys, Evia


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