zpravodajství životního prostředí již od roku 1999

Národní parky v okolí Skopje (angl.)

Národní parky v okolí Skopje (angl.)
Galicia, Pelister a Mavrovo



GALICICA (Ohrid, Resen)

It has a total surface area of 22.750 ha and is located between the Ohrid and Prespa Lakes in the south-western part of the country. Within the Galicica NP, 41 species of woodlike plants, 40 species of bushes, 16 forest communities and 16 grassy communities. The Galicica National Park is characterized by a high incidence of relict and endemic plants. The following are especially significant among the relict plants: Morina persica, Ramondia serbica, Phelipea boissiri and Berberis croatica. Among endemic plants, the following are known: Centaurea galicicae, Centaurea tomorosii, Centaurea soskae, Helichrysum zivojini, Edrianthus horvatii, Festuca galicicae, Micromeria kocanini etc.. There are 10 amphibian species, 17 reptile species, 124 bird species and 40 mammal species.

PELISTER (Bitola, Prilep)

The Pelister national park is a part of the Baba mountain located in the south-western part of the Republic of Macedonia. There are 37 species of woodlike plants, 31 species of bushes, 18 species of forest communities and 27 grassy communities located within this national park. Among plant communities, the largest surface area is covered by pine forests covering exclusively a surface area of 1.174 ha, and there are also pine-fir, pin-beech, pin-beech-fir, beech and oak-beech forests. Among flora elements, the presence is especially significant of the five-needle pine molica (Pinus peuce)- a unique species of tertiary age being present on only a few mountains in the Balkan Peninsula. It reaches its development peak on the Pelister Mountain on 1000 to beyond 2.200 m.a.s.w. Within high mountain layers, the following endemic plants may be found: Crocus peristericus, Dianthus myrtinervius, Sempervivum octopodes and Alchemilla peristerica.

As for the vertebrate fauna, there are 12 amphibian, 16 reptiles, 130 bird species and 37 mammal species, special attention deserved by the bear, the doe, the lynx, the wild goat, the deer, the wild boar, the stone partridge (Alcetoris graeca), the golden eagle (Aquila crhysaetos), the stone creeper (Tichodroma muraria) and the red-beak corax (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). Among the fish, the presence of the endemic Pelister trout is of special significance (Salmo peristerrious Karaman).

MAVROVO (Mavrovi Anovi, Rostuse)

It covers an area of 73.088 ha and is the largest national park of the ones already proclaimed in Macedonia. It includes the southern parts of the Sar Mountain, the western and central parts of the mountain of Bistra and parts of the Korab and Desat mountains. The highest peak is the Golem Korab - 2.764 meters high. The central part of the national park covers the Radika river valley and watershed where numerous interesting geo-morphological forms may be found: canyons, steep sections, variously shaped stones, caves etc..

The Park's vegetation is present with numerous plant species of tertiary origin. Forest communities may be sub-divided into several environmental groups. In the lowest parts, along the Radika and Mala Reka rivers, where there is a high impact of the Mediterranean climate, sub-Mediterranean thermo-xenophybile forests may be found with communities of blagun-belgrabic forests. At highly steep and hard-to-reach sections, within the Radika canyon part, Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus orientalis may be found. Mostly present in the park is the community of mountain beech forests (Fagetum montanum) that constitutes a level layer with an amplitude of 1.300 to 1.550 meters. Relatively huge areas are also covered by the community of the mountain beech forest of fir (Abieti fagetum). The existence of Picea excelsa is of a local character. It may be found only on one site- along the upstream sections of the Adzina river, that is the utmost south location within Europe. Due to the high variety of its relief and the abundance of its mezo- and micro-environmental conditions, the Mavrovo national park has an exceptionally abundant flora stock consisting of more than 1000 species of higher-developed plants, of which 38 forest species, 35 bush species and some 100 rare or endemic species in the Balkan Peninsula. There is also great variety with the park's fauna. It consists of 140 bird species of which the following are significant: the gray falcon (Falco peregrinus Tunst.), the imperial eagle (Aquilla heliaca Sav.), the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos L.), the forest owl (Strix aluco), the great owl (Bubo bubo), the meadow harrier (Cricus pygargus), the steppe harrier (Circus macrorus), 11 amphibian species, 12 reptile species and 38 mammal species. Among the mammals, the most significant are the following: the bear (Ursus arctos L.); the lynx (Lynx lynx L.), the wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.); and the wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreb.).

ZDROJ: www.moe.gov.mk

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