Half the overall energy supply could be made out of renewable energy sources. Serbia can provide half of its overall energy capacity from renewable energy sources, which is currently18%.
The biggest share might belong to biomass that can provide ¼ of total energy supply in Serbia, but large quantity of energy may come from hydro energy, the sun, and the wind.
Accordingly to data from Ministry for Coal and Energy, Serbia can produce 4,89 million tonnes of equivalent oil (ten) per year, from renewable energy sources, while total amount of such provided energy was 8.7 ten last year.
Till 2020 year, accordingly to Kyoto protocol, Serbia has to decrease the level of harmful gas emission by 20%.
Accordingly to Ministry of Energy and Mining, biomass can give as much as ¼ of total energy supply in Serbia. So-called energy forests could be planted in our country by covering the surface of 200.000 hectares of uncultivated land that can also embrace fast-growing forests, which can be further used for energy purposes. Investment to support production of the biomass made electricity is approximately 50 million euro.
Hydro energy participates with 32% in total electricity production in Serbia, and its hydro potential is being derived from 63 hydro plants. However, only 70% of hydro resources of Serbia is being currently employed, whilst as many as 60 % of hydro plants being 40 -50 and some of them more than 50 years old.
Potential Investors are interested in small hydro plants of 10 MW, and there are some 900 locations in Serbia for the construction of hydro plants of 500 MW. Estimated profit of the said locations could be up to 50 million euro per year, which can certainly motivate investors. The locations are mainly on the Danube, Lim, and Morava rivers.
The Ministry of Coal and Energy is issuing energy permissions for the constructions of hydro plants, whilst municipalities are in charge for permissions for hydro plants of less than 1 MW.
From the wind energy, Serbia can annually produce 2,3 billions of kWh, which would make 120 billion euros profit.
It is necessary to make wind maps of Serbia, at which the wind parks are going to be built. For economical production of wind-generated electricity, minimal average speed of the wind should be 5m/sec at the altitude of 50 meters.
Presently, there are projects for several wind parks: “Dolovo” near Pancevo with 25 wind generators of 85MW, “Bele Crkva” (at municipality of Vrsac) of 100MW, “Indjija” of 20 MW as well as developing project of “Kovin” wind park.
Speaking of solar energy, accordingly to the data of Ministry of Energy, average sun radiation is by 40% higher than that of the European, amounting to 1,4 kWh per square meters. The biggest potential of this energy is within the territory of Nis, Kursumlija and Vranje.
The use of geothermal energy for heating and other energy purposes is only at the beginning, and it not yet developed in terms of potentials and resources. Regular application of geothermal resources could save 500.000 cubic of fuel, around 2,2 million tonnes of coal and 600 million cubic of gas - says professor Mica Martinovic, engineer of geology by profession. Many companies from Holland, Germany, Russia are very motivated to invest in production and consumption of geothermal energy within agricultural sector. They intend to construct green houses by covering surface of more than 300 hectares and to put investments of 200 million euros.