The Falkland Islands lie in the South West Atlantic approximately 450 kilometres north-east of Tierra del Fuego, between latitudes 51 and 53 degrees south, and longitudes 57 and 62 degrees west. The archipelago is made up of two main islands, East and West Falkland, and over seven hundred smaller islands and islets, comprising a land area of just over 12,000 square kilometres.
There are three principal mountain ranges with land over 600m: the Wickham Heights on East Falkland, and Mount Adam and the Hornby Mountains on West Falkland. These upland areas, along with most of West Falkland, are largely underlain by Palaeozoic rocks which tend to form rugged landscapes and coastlines, whilst the lowland areas of East Falkland, predominantly Lafonia and surrounding islands, are underlain by younger Mesozoic rocks which give a flatter landscape. These differing coastlines and terrain each provide features suitable for particular fauna and flora, resulting in associations between geology and species composition.
Most lowlands tend to have acidic peaty soils, which are generally of low fertility and which tend to support Dwarf Shrub Heath on the drier areas and Grassland on the wetter terrain. Where nutrient levels are higher, finer grasses and sedges are often supported as a short turf. Such Greens can be the result of natural nutrification, such as run-off from surrounding land or mineral deposits, or from animals such as penguins, geese and rabbits. Equally the high nutrient levels could be the result of agricultural practices, such as the intensive grazing of livestock, in which case such greens would more correctly be termed Pasture. The upper reaches of mountains and ridges generally have clay or stony soils, and these conditions combined with exposure favour the growth of cushion plant communities called Feldmark.
Informace o geologii , nerostném bohatsví Falklandských (Malvínských) ostrovů a okolního šelfu najdete na následujících webových stránkách: