It was established in 1986 by a joint decree drawn up by the Ministries of the Environment and the Merchant Navy. The coast is made up of karst limestone, a characteristic rock of the "Carso" of which the Miramare promontory is a small littoral offshoot. The sea bottom of the reserve is rocky, pebbly and sandy up to 8 metres in depth, whereas further into the sea it becomes muddy. The maximum depth amounts to 18 metres.
Location: Italy, Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea). Region: Friuli Venezia Giulia, Municipalities: Trieste - Grignano.
Size: 121 hectares, including a core area of 30 ha and a buffer zone of 91 ha.
Manager & owner: The reserve is managed by WWF-Italy since 1986. The official protected area manager is Mr. Maurizio Spoto, who works in collaboration with a staff of biologists and naturalists.
Actuality: The RNMM has recently set up several scientific collaborations, frameworks and agreements with important institutes such as Department of Biology of the University of Trieste (www.univ.trieste.it), Aberdeen Marine Laboratory (www.marlab.ac.uk), O.G.S "Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale" (www.ogs.trieste.it) and "Azienda Parchi e Foreste della Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia" (www.regione.fvg.it). Scientific research and spreading knowledge has had interesting results both in the evaluation of the "Reserve effect" and in highlighting the importance of the protected area in the conservation of the northern Adriatic ecosystem.
Culture & History
Miramare is set on a promontory, that consists of Mesozoic calcareous strata, embedded in Eocene drifts of sandstone and marls, called flysch. The first Miramare Marine Park was set up in the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) in 1973, at a time when the first marine reserves had already been created in other Mediterranean countries. It was a private initiative by a local naturalist in co-operation with WWF according to the state concessions envisaged by the Maritime Code. In 1986 the official Marine Reserve was established.
Nature & Landscape
The Miramare promontory overlooking the MNMR is embedded between the small tourist harbour of Grignano and the coast of Barcola, which in summer becomes a bathing destination for the local population. The protected area is placed in a coastal and marine environment. The coast is rocky, while further into the sea it becomes rocky, pebbly and muddy.
Flora & Fauna
The promontory is safeguarded for its particular geomorphological characteristics that determine the flora and the fauna and make Miramare a unique environment. Indeed, it represents all the distinctive features of the Gulf of Trieste. The Gulf is characterised by strong tidal ranges that may exceed 1.5 m, whereas other Mediterranean coasts reach an average level of 20 cm.
Biological monitoring surveys have been carried out in the protected area for several years and have detected more than 1200 species belonging to different taxa (species or subspecies). They range from small planktonic organisms to marine reptiles such as Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and big mammals such as Tursiops (Tursiops truncatus), which are occasionally seen in the Gulf.
The various species in the intertidal area include the brown algae Fucus virsoides, although it has considerably decreased over the past few years. This is a Mediterranean endemic species marking the average sea limit over which there is an area, which is only occasionally under water but is usually reached by sea sprays.
The reef is an environment rich in biodiversity. It is populated by different species of blennidae and gobidae colonising rocky holes and hollows, while combers (Serranus hepatus and Serranus scriba) keep still and hunt in their territory and a large number of labridae, sparidae, Sea bass and Grey mullets swim around the protected area. The ethologists and ecologists working in Miramare do research with particular reference to the Damselfish (Chromis chromis) and the Brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) among others.
The MNMR has attached particular importance to the Peacock blenny (Lipophrys pavo) not because it is a rare species but because it is very common. That is why it has become the symbol of the Reserve.
ZDROJ: http://www.coastalguide.to/miramare/index.html, kráceno