Pokud pojedete na dovolenou do Egypta neopomeňte navštívit Egyptské geologické muzeum. Stojí to za to.
The museum is a part of the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA). The Egyptian Geological Museum was officially opened as a part of the Survey and was allocated a beautiful and specially designed building in the gardens of the Ministry of Public Works in downtown Cairo. It was opened for the public in 1904 and remained as one of the cultural centers in Cairo up to 1982 when the building was taken down and the Museum transferred to its present location near Maadi (southern Cairo).
The first Museum Keeper was William Andrews (1904), followed by Henry Osborne (1906). Hassan Sadek was the first Egyptian Museum Keeper.
The famous fossil collection of the Fayoum vertebrates was the first to be displayed in the new museum. The collection was dug from the Fayoum in 1898, sent to the British Museum in London for identification in 1899 and returned for display. The collection continued to grow and become more varied with the increased number of field expedition and the different areas covered by field work.
The Geological Museum celebrated its 75th Anniversary in the year 1979 and a special postal stamp was issued to commemorate the occasion . However, in the following year the building had to be torn down because of the Cairo Underground Metro, and its collection was transferred to a temporary sits in the Al Zahra area near Maadi.
The Geological Museum plays the essential role of introducing earth sciences to the public. It emphasizes the geology of Egypt, its minerals, rocks and fossils, through well organized displays. The Museum participates in the advancement of scientific research through collaboration with scientists from Egypt and abroad, who seek out famous collections of vertebrate fossils and of meteorites.
The Museum is open to the public from 8.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. daily, except on Thursday, Fridays and official holidays. The Museum collection is displayed in three Galleries. These are described in brief, below :
This Gallery is one of the three main galleries of the Museum. In this gallery, various specimens of minerals and rock are exhibited. These represent the main occurrences of minerals and rocks in Egypt and some important specimens from other parts of the world.
Mineral Exhibitions: These exhibitions show different varieties of minerals that are classified on the basis of their chemical composition, their occurrences in Egypt, their physical properties and their uses. These include :
A- Gold Glass Case: In ancient times, Egyptians exploited many sites for gold in the Eastern Desert and utilized large quantities of gold in the making of jewelry and object of fine art.
The gold show case exhibits specimens of gold-bearing quartz and calcite that represent the natural occurrence of gold. It also shows the different stages of extraction of gold from its ores by amalgamation. At the same time, it displays some different gold alloys.
B - Al Omary´s Showcase: This glass case exhibits a collection of minerals of special value donated by the late Omary´s family. The collection represents some rare varieties of the mineral species in their ideal habitat.
C - Chemical Classification of Minerals: This exhibition occupies a large sector of the minerals and rocks gallery. It is devoted to the minerals arranged according to their chemical composition. In this case, minerals are exhibited as groups on the basis of the type of anion, as follows:
Native elements, including , gold, silver, copper and sulfur.
Oxides, including, including different varieties of quartz, corundum, ilmenite, chromite, cassiterite, hematite, magnetite, limonite and goethite (among others).
Sulfides, including, Pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, arsinopyrie and molybdenite (among others).
Halides, including, halite, fluorite and others.
Carbonates, including siderite, malachite, azurite, calcite, aragonite, cerrusite, strontianite, magnesite and others.
Sulfates, including gypsum, anhydrite, barite, celesite, epsomite, alunite (among others).
Phosphates, including apatite varieties and others.
Miscellaneous Minerals, including molybdates (wolfenite), borates (borax) and chromates (crocoite).
Silicates, including the main groups of silicate minerals such as nesosilicates (olivine and others), sorosilicates (hemimorphite and others) , cyclosilicates (beryl and others), inosilicates (enstatite , tremolite and others), phyllosilicates (micas and others) , tectosilicates (feldspars and others).
D- Egyptian Ores: In these showcases the Egyptian ores are arranged according to their localities in Egypt, e.g., Sinai ores (coal , manganese ores, turquoise etc) ; Eastern Desert ores ( iron ores, mica, wolframite, chromite, magnesite, talc, quartz etc) and Western Desert ores (iron ores, phosphate, etc.).
E- Exhibition of the physical properties: This exhibition shows collection of specimens that illustrate the physical properties of minerals, such as the variation of color in the same mineral e.g.( quartz); stability of streak irrespective of the variation of color in the same mineral; luster; play of colors; transparency; hardness and cleavage.
F- Exhibition of Morphological Features: This show case exhibits a collection of minerals of special forms, such as; fibrous gypsum , oolitic hematite and others.
G - Exhibition of Crystallographic Systems: This show case displays a collection of minerals occurring in the crystallographic systems , i.e., cubic tetragonal , hexagonal , trigonal orthorhombic , monoclinic and triclinic systems. Each of these systems is represented by ideal mineral crystals accompanied by their stereographic projections.
H - Exhibition of Gems:This exhibition displays collections of minerals that are characterized by pretty colors , transparency and hardness. It includes the well known Egyptian gems such as emeralds , turquoise and peridot. In addition to these Egyptian gems, it contains some of the world gems such as topaz, amber tourmaline, garnet and others
Exhibitions of Rocks: These exhibitions show representative specimens for the three main groups of rocks consisting of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic as well as , most of the famous Egyptian rocks. The include:
A - Igneous Rocks: This exhibition shows representative specimens of most of the subdivisions of igneous rocks. In this exhibition, the rocks are arranged according to the degree of saturation of silica i.e. over saturated, saturated and under saturated. The exhibition also shows the intrusive rocks of each subdivision and their equivalents of the extrusive rocks. Also, in a special show case are the ornamental Egyptian rocks such as granite, Imperial porphyry and others.
B- Sedimentary Rocks:
C- Metamorphic Rocks:
D- Famous Egyptians Rocks:
A - Exhibition of Flint Implements: This exhibition shows a collection of flint implements and other stone tools of prehistoric time. The collection illustrates the development of the stone industries through the three main periods of prehistoric times consisting of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.
B - Exhibition of Tektites and Silica Glass: This exhibition shows a wide variety of tektites from different parts of the world including Moldvites, Australuite, Indochinites and others.
A large space of this exhibitions is devoted to the well known Egyptian silica glass ( Libyan Desert Glass) and three meteorites that were collected from the glass field during a May 1991 expedition. This expedition explored the possibility that Libyan Glass was formed as the result of an impact of a huge meteorite.
C- Exhibition of Meteorites: This shows a huge international collection of meteorites , representing the three main groups consisting of irons, stony- irons and stones.
In a separate show case , the Egyptian meteorites are shown. These are the Nakhla , Isna, Great Sand Sea 004 and El Bahrian meteorites.
Invertebrate Fossils Gallery
This is the second of the three main exhibition galleries in the Egyptian Geological Museum, which consist of the Rocks & Minerals , Invertebrate Fossils and Vertebrate Fossils galleries.
This gallery is divided mainly into three divisions consisting of the Stratigraphics Sequence ( Geological Column), Egyptian Geology as represented by fossils and Systematic paleontology. In addition, the Gallery shows a collection of specimens that represent the methods of preservation. There are also some collections that represent gifts to the Museum.
1- The Stratigraphic Sequence ( Geological Column):
2- The Egyptian Geology : Here is displayed exhibits of the Egyptian stratigraphic sequence as given by fossils from Cambro of Ordovician ( represented by trace fossils), including Brachiopoda , Mollusca, Echinoid and others.
3- Systematic Paleontology : Organisms are not only classified into two great kingdoms ( Plants & Animals) but are also subdivided into successively smaller and more restricted groups. There is a special show case exhibiting the systematic classification of invertebrate organism.
4.1 The prehistoric Civilization Collection: A special showcase provides some imaginative pictures depicting the life of prehistoric man, along with the tools he used such as arrows, axes, knives and others.
4.2 Display of Methods of Preservation: This collection exhibits samples showing the mineralogical replacement which happened to the hard part of the organisms. Replacement can be done through the introduction of many substances such as iron oxides, calcite; silica and others.
4.3 The Ex-Royal Family Samples : This display contains a collection of some most rare and unbelievable samples, including :
A very beautiful pearly shell fashioned as a crown. It was presented to the Ex-King by the Egyptian Scouts.
A picture of the Ex- King ( Fouad) and a part of the Opera Aida engraved on gastropod shells.
A collection of shells fashioned in a beautiful manner.
A collection of amber containing fossilized insects.
Some Corals from the Egyptian beaches: 4.4 Display of Fossil Plants : This display exhibits a collection of fossil plants that represent carboniferous and Jurassic Periods in the Sinai along with Cretaceous , Oligocene and Pleistocene in other areas of Egypt and abroad. The Plants are fossilized either as prints on rocks or by mineralogical replacement such as the solidified wood from the Siwa Oasis, Maadi and Cairo (along the Suez Road).
III- Vertebrate Fossils Gallery
This gallery hosts mainly the world famous Vertebrate fossils discovered in the Fayoum province , together with a few other important Fossils - The main displays are;
1 - Arsinoitherium show cases :
2- Moeritherium :
3- Palaeomastodon :
4- Basilosaurus (Zeuglodon):
Aegyptopithecus was a more advanced creature than the typical ape adaptations. Aegyptopithecus, evidently about the size of a modern Gibbon , had a somewhat expanded cranium as well as large, forward directed eyes adapted to binocular vision and depth perception.
6- Tomistoma :
7- Turtles :
8- Sirenia (Sea Cow) :
The discovery of primitive Sirenians remains in Egypt suggests that this creature originated in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world.
9- Fish :
In addition to the three galleries , there is a library specialized in geological sciences. It hosts more than 10.000 text books, journals, periodicals, annals and maps. It includes original editions of many rare books such as Fossilen Mollusken by Von Wien (1836) , Echinodermes by Agassiz (1847) , Naqada and Betrie (1895) among others.
Scientific museums play an important role in educating the public. The large numbers of these museums in Egypt is indicative of our country's desire to spread scientific awareness in the public sector.
The Egyptian Geological Museum is the museums that disseminates geological science to the public. It introduces the discoveries of the Egyptian Geological survey and Mining Authority ( EGSMA), in the field of the geology in Egypt , to the public. While it provides considerable attention to the ancient life forms in Egypt, it also devotes a great interest to the most important mineral deposits in Egypt, along with their uses during the different ages. Meteorites and their effects on the earth surface are also considered within the main topics of the museum.
Moreover, it concerns the history of the Earth as a whole, including the most important events effecting the Earth. It explores the creation of life and its development during the various geological periods. During one visit to the Egyptian Geological Museum, one may gain considerable knowledge about the history of the Earth as well as the features of the Egyptian Land over millions while also examining the strange forms of creations that spread during different periods in Egypt.
Ather El Nabi - Misr El Kadima, Cairo, Egypt
Free Admittance8:30 am to 2:30 pm
Box : Dawawin No. 11521
Phone : 5240916 - 5240917
ZDROJ:http://www.touregypt.net/geo/, krácenoNumerous types of fish are exhibited in special show cases in the Museum. These fossilized fish come from many geological periods. One of the most important example is the middle Eocene fossilized fish from a limestone quarry at Ain El Sira, Cairo.Sirenia (Sea Cow) are purely aquatic animals found along the coasts and river mouths of various parts of the world. The body has assumed the torpedo like characteristic of many water vertebrates , with no distinct neck and with a laterally expanded tail. Remains of fossilized primitive Sirenians are found in different sites through the Eocene Formations of Egypt such as at Mokattam, Qasr el Sagha and wadi Hitan in the Fayoum region. These lived during the middle and late Eocene. Numerous fossilized true turtles are exhibited in the Museum. These were collected from different sites in the Fayoum and Wadi Moghra. These turtles lived in different environments including dry land, rivers, marshes and seas. Tomistoma is one of the widespread reptiles which lived during the Eocene , Oligocene and Miocene in Egypt. Fossilized remains of this creature have been found in Qaser el Sagha and Gabal Qatrani Formations of the Fayoum region as well as in the Moghra Formation, Wadi Moghra in the Qattara Depression. Many specimens are exhibited in the Museum.Aegyptopithecus : This is one of the most important specimens in the collection of the Egyptian Museum. This extraordinary fossilized creature lived during the late Oligocene in the Fayoum region.Basilosaurus (or Zeuglodon) was a huge whale that lived during the Eocene. Well preserved skeletons of this creature are fairly common in the Gehannam Formation near Garet Gehannam north of Wadi El Rayan in the Fayoum. The body of Basilosaurus was over sixty feet in length.Palaeomastodon and phiomia were the first of the mastodons. They lived during the lower Oligocene period in Egypt. Fossilized remains of paleomastodon and Phiomia are found in the Lower Oligocene Gabal Qatrani Formation located in the Fayoum. The Museum shows a complete skull and other parts of the Palaeomastodon. Moeritheries were heavily built animals about the size of pigs with long bodies and short legs that terminated in broad , spreading feet with flat hooves on the end of the toes. The tail was short. They lived in Egypt during the late Eocene ( 40 million years B.P.) and early Oligocene periods. Fossilized remains of Moeritherium have been extracted from the Qasr el Sagha Formation and the Gabal Qattrani Formation north of Birket Qarun in the Fayoum. The Museum shows a complete skeleton of the Moeritheriun in a special glass show case.
The LibraryArsinoitherium is a unique creature which lived some 34 million years ago. Fossilized remains are found in the lower Oligocene in the Gabal Qatrani formation of the Fayoum. This great beast was of Rhinoceros size. The most striking feature o f the animal was the presence of a huge pair of horns on the nasal bones , together with small ones on the frontals. Many glass cases exhibit different fossilized parts of Arsionitherium and there is also a complete model of this animal at one fifth its natural size.This display exhibits invertebrate fossils arranged stratigraphically from Cambrian to recent times and includes Trilobites , Corals , Mollusca , Echinoid and others.This exhibition shows some of the most famous ornamental Egyptian stones which were used during ancient Egyptian times. These include monumental granite , diorite, Imperial porphyry, Egyptian alabaster , Nummulitic limestone, breccia verde antico, marble and others.The exhibitions of the metamorphic rocks show most of their common varieties. The metamorphic rocks in this exhibition are classified according to their textures into two main groups consisting of non foliated rocks such as marbles, quartzite, and foliated rocks such as gneisses, schists, and others. The exhibitions of sedimentary rocks show specimens representing the two main subdivisions of these rocks consisting of clastic and nonclastic. The clastic rocks are represented by breccia , conglomerate, sandstone, shale and a few others, while the nonclastic rocks are represented by limestone, dolomite, coal, phosphates and others.
Minerals & Rocks Gallery