Gold production dates back to Ancient Egyptians (3100-2181B.C.).The Papyrus of El-Fawakhir mine map documents the evolution of mining industry and the well planning of Bekhen industrial complex. Production continued extensively till the fifth century AD. The production of gold during the period from 1902 to 1927 was about 2750 kgm, however, it stopped till 1934, then it started again in 1935 and it reached about 4200 Kg till 1958.The number of the old mines and the areas where gold is present in Egypt are about 120 sites, all located in the Eastern Desert.
Gold extraction stopped in 1958, and it took place in parts rich of gold ore and in shallow deeps due to the absence of technological potentials, which enable economic production in deep areas and treating low-percent gold ores. Production stopped completely till 2007.Thus, the entire production of gold in the twentieth century was 7 tons only of pure gold. But with the availability of sufficient technology and the presence of a partner, who is able to help financially, gold was discovered in many areas from gold deposits in Egypt and more gold reserves were approved.
Gold discovery and production in Egypt once again assures the strategy of the Ministry of Petroleum which aims at supporting gold exploration and production, achieving the optimal economic utilization and increasing the added value, in addition to increasing job opportunities in this promising sector, which employs large numbers of workers. Moreover, the presence of gold in the middle of and south the valley contributes positively in the socio-economic development of these areas, which is one of the main goals of the State and is considered a new tributary for the national income. At present, there are three sites for gold production in the Eastern Desert, the first is in Sukari Hill, the second is in Hamash and the third is in Wadi Allaqi.
Sukari Gold Mines
The Sukari gold mine, which is considered one of the largest open-pit gold mines worldwide, is located in the Eastern Desert about 25 km southwest of Marsa Alam.
The Sukari Gold Mining Company was established in May 2005.It is a joint venture operating company between the Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority and the Australian Pharaoh Gold Mining (Centamin) to explore and exploit gold after the transfer of the mineral resources activities to the ministry of Petroleum.