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Norway: Oslo waste management (Norsko: Nakládání s odpady v Oslu)

15.03.2013
Odpady
Norway: Oslo waste management (Norsko: Nakládání s odpady v Oslu)

Each household has two waste bins. One for paper and cardboard only, and one for residual waste, plastic and food. The residual waste is to be put into a white plastic bag. Plastic waste goes into a blue bag, and food waste into a green bag. You will be provided with the blue and green bags or can pick them up from supermarkets.

Collection of plastic and food is now a citywide service. For questions please contact the Agency for waste management .

The paper/cardboard bin (labelled papir in Norwegian) is for:

  • Newspapers/magazines, periodicals, advertising brochures/flyers etc., wrapping paper, cardboard/corrugated board,
  • Cartons: Drinks cartons - juice, milk, cream etc. (washed and dried)
  • Light cardboard - pizza boxes, macaroni boxes, egg cartons, cornflakes boxes, freezer cartons etc

Note! Paper, cardboard and cartons must not be soiled.

For the other bin, please do as follows:

Put the residual waste into shopping bags that are easily distinguishable from the green and blue bags. If you are in doubt, place the waste in the residual waste bag or call the City of Oslo Agency for Waste Management´s customer service for further information. The different bags will be separated by automatic optical sorting at the new sorting plant at Haraldrud.

Waste that does not fit into a normal shopping bag should not be thrown into the bin but delivered to a recycling station.

The Waste-to-Energy Agency (EGE) produces environmentally friendly energy from waste. Residual waste becomes light and heat at the two energy recovery plants Haraldrud and Klemetsrud in Oslo.

EGE has 200 employees. Pal Mikkelsen is the managing director. The agency is under the supervision of the City og Oslos Department of Environmental Affairs and Transport.

EGEs vision is to be a leading industrial actor within safe energy recovery and waste management. EGEs core values are: customer orientation, integrity, commitment and respect.

The Waste-to-Energy Agency (EGE) produces environmentally friendly energy from waste. Residual waste becomes light and heat at the two energy recovery plants Haraldrud and Klemetsrud in Oslo.

Receives and recycles
EGE receives and recycles waste from households in Oslo, neighboring municipalities and from private companies. The agency has a close collaboration with the Agency for waste management, that physically collects and transports the waste from Oslos households.

Sorting plant
At EGEs optical sorting plant, green bags with food waste and blue bags with plastic packaging are separated from the residual waste and sent to material recovery.

Clients
EGEs clients include waste contractors and other municipalities. Waste represents a resource, and EGE receives waste in competition with other energy recovery plants in Norway and Sweden.

Capacity
The two incineration plants have the capacity to receive a total of 410,000 tons of waste annually. From this, around 840 GWh of energy is recovered as district heating and about 160 GWh as electricity. This corresponds to the energy use of 84,000 households.

The Haraldrud plant

Haraldrud plant
o Built in 1967 as the very first incineration plant in Norway

o Extended with an optical sorting plant in 2010

o Recycling and sorting capacity of 100,000 tons of waste annually

The Klemetsrud plant
Klemetsrud plant o The largest energy recovery plant in Norway. In operation since 1986

o Extended with a third incinerator line in 2010

o Recycling capacity of 310,000 tons of waste annually (09.01.12)

Energigjenvinningsetaten´s biogas plant treats organic waste from Oslo and its surroundings. The plant produces biogas and organic fertilizer. The biogas is upgraded to LBG, and is used to fuel city busses and renovation trucks. The organic fertilizer produced is used for agricultural purposes. This creates a closed loop, where waste resources are exploited in the best manner possible.
District heating

What?
A district heating plant is, simply put, a centrally located heating plant supplying buildings or neighborhoods with hot water for heating and tap water. The district heating production in Oslo is strongly increasing and the energy is, among other sources, supplied from EGE´s waste incineration. EGE delivers 50 percent of the current energy need in the district heating system.

How?
The energy produced at the EGE plants is used to heat water which is sent into the district heating network owned by Hafslund. The water is transported in pipes to district heating customers in Oslo. Previously, Oslo used to have two separate district heating networks, but these are now connected with a 13.6 kilometer long transition pipe between Klemetsrud and the city centre. In order for an end-user to make use of district heating, the building or house needs to have pipes for water-based heating. The energy is transferred from the district heating water to the customer´s heating system through recuperative heat exchangers. The district heating network in Oslo is continuously being expanded. In the years to come, there will be large expansion activities in the following city areas: Oppsal, Manglerud, Ammerud, Sagene/Torshov, Frogner/Majorstua and Ensjo.

Role in the natural cycle
Waste that cannot be material recovered, is energy recovered at EGE. From an environmental and climate perspective, this is the best way to manage residual waste. Annually, EGE´s plant produces 840 GWh of renewable district heating energy and 160 GWh of electricity. The district heating is used for heating, thus reducing the use of fossil energy sources such as oil burners.

EGE produces electrical power using both steam from the incinerators at the Klemetsrud plant and methane gas generated by the old landfill at Gronmo. Collectively, these two sources provide enough electricity to cover the power need of half of the schools in Oslo.

Bjornholt School in Oslo is one of the largest in the city and benefits from locally produced electricity. The school has an annual electricity consumption of 1.7 million kWh. In addition, the district heating plant in Oslo supplies another three million kWh to heat the school.

The electricity originates from the utilization of steam, created in the district heating production process. This steam runs a turbine that generates power. A grand total of 160 million kWh of electricity is produced at the EGE plants each year.

What?
EGE delivers electrical energy produced by steam turbines at the energy recovery plant at Klemetsrud. In addition, electricity is produced from gas generated at the old landfill Gronmo.

How?
The high temperatures in the incinerators create large quantities of steam in addition to hot water. The steam is led to steam turbines that generate electrical power.

The landfill gas at Gronmo - generated by decomposition processes - produces electricity in gas turbines at the Klemetsrud plant. The landfill gas plant collects as much of the gas as possible and the gas is then transported to the Klemetsrud plant in underground pipes.

Role in the natural cycle
EGE´s electricity production utilizes the energy released by combustion of waste, and schools in Oslo use the renewable electricity. By recycling the city´s waste, Oslo can make use of valuable resources and produce green energy.

The gas created through biological decomposition processes of old waste at Gronmo consists mainly of methane gas. Methane gas is a heavy climate gas that increases the greenhouse effect, thus harming the environment. When the methane gas is incinerated, we remove a harmful climate gas from nature´s cycle, at the same time as we exploit the gas to produce non-fossil based energy.

o EGE produces energy-recycled electricity from Gronmo landfill equivalent to the power consumption of 1,700 house-holds

o Old household waste at Gronmo generates methane gas that is gathered, burnt and converted into electricity

o Gronmo landfill was established as a waste dumpsite in 1969 and closed in 2006

Optical sorting

Optical sorting

Source-sorted organic waste sacks and plastic waste sacks are sorted at the optical sorting plant at Haraldrud, in two separate trains. Each train with a capacity of 50.000 tons Optic readers sorts green and blue coloured sacks. Green for organic waste and blue for plastic waste. A third train of 50.000 tons will open spring 2012 at Klemetsrud.

KA3 in Oslo - latest process technology provides maximum energy recuperation
With the expansion of the energy-from-waste plant at Klemetsrud by a third train, the overall capacity of the plants in the Oslo suburb rises to an annual capacity of 320,000 tonnes. The design of the new plant train, called KA3, with combustion performance of 20 t/h and a heating value of 12 MJ/kg, is set up for maximum recovery of heat and electricity production.
Energy-efficient, economical and environmentally-friendly; these were the requirements stipulated by the City of Oslo, for the additional train in the Oslo suburb of Klemetsrud. Flue gases are efficiently cleaned using a process based on a wet scrubber. The energy is used to directly supply local district heating and electricity companies.
Optimum combustion with energy extraction
The waste material stored in the bunker is con­veyed into the charging hopper of the combustion system via loading grabbers. In the combustion chamber, the reciprocating grate that comprises five individually-controllable zones ensures optimum combustion throughout in the various combustion stages. The first two water-cooled grate zones provide the greatest degree of flexibility with regard to the heating values of the waste material.
The recovered heat from the water-cooled grate is used to pre-heat the primary air. In the post-combustion chamber, above the grate, secondary air and recirculated flue gas is injected tangentially at high speed. This guarantees intensive mixture of the combustion gases and provides excellent combustion of the combustion gases. The energy released is transferred to the water-steam cycle in a subsequent four-pass steam generator.
Efficient cleaning of flue gas
Multi-stage flue gas cleaning ensures safe separation of all pollutants to maintain the lowest emissions values. The plant has been designed for low operating material costs and maximum energy recuperation.
In a first step 99% of dust and heavy metals that are contained in the flue gas are removed in the electrostatic precipitator.
Both before and in the wet scrubber, dioxin compounds and mercury are adsorbed via lignite coke and are discharged with the scrubber water. The acidic pollutant gases and heavy metals are separated in the first two stages of the 4-stage scrubber. Sulphur dioxide is dissolved in the neutral stage, and the remaining fine dust particles and aerosols are separated via a ring jet stage (venturi process). The fourth scrubber stage provides security in the event of high levels of pollutants and also allows heat recovery via flue gas condensation.
ZDROJ:http://www.energigjenvinningsetaten.oslo.kommune.no
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